新儿教

 找回密码
 注册

QQ登录

只需一步,快速开始

扫一扫,访问微社区


搜索
热搜: 儿童 教育 英语
查看: 2271|回复: 1

[父母加油站] 海鱼营养好,食用要当心!

[复制链接]
发表于 2014-11-8 09:50:00 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
FDA及EPA 2014年六月发布了一个鱼类食用建议草稿(尚未定稿,定稿后会取代2014年3月的版本),内容如下:Fish: What Pregnant Women and Parents Should KnowDraft Updated Advice by FDA and EPA
June 2014
The FDA and the EPA are revising their joint fish consumption Advice and Questions & Answers to encourage pregnant women, those who may become pregnant, breastfeeding mothers, and young children to eat more fish and to eat a variety of fish from choices that are lower in mercury. This is a DRAFT for which you may provide comment. Once finalized, it will replace the current advice which was issued in 2004.
Downloadin PDF (276KB)

Advice
Key Message

Eat 8 to 12 ounces of a variety of fish* each week from choices that are lower in mercury. The nutritional value of fish is important during growth and development before birth, in early infancy for breastfed infants, and in childhood.


Who should know

Women who are pregnant (or might become pregnant) or breastfeeding.
Anyone who feeds young children.


What to do

1. Eat 8-12 ounces of a variety of fish a week.
  • That’s 2 or 3 servings of fish a week.
  • For young children, give them 2 or 3 servings of fish a week with the portion right for the child’s age and calorie needs.
2. Choose fish lower in mercury.
  • Many of the most commonly eaten fish are lower in mercury.
  • These include salmon, shrimp, pollock, tuna (light canned), tilapia, catfish, and cod.
3. Avoid 4 types of fish: tilefish from the Gulf of Mexico, shark, swordfish, and king mackerel.
  • These 4 types of fish are highest in mercury.
  • Limit white (albacore) tuna to 6 ounces a week.
4. When eating fish you or others have caught from streams, rivers, and lakes, pay attention to fish advisories on those waterbodies.
  • If advice isn’t available, adults should limit such fish to 6 ounces a week and young children to 1 to 3 ounces a week and not eat other fish that week.
5. When adding more fish to your diet, be sure to stay within your calorie needs.


Why this advice is important

Fish contains important nutrients for developing fetuses, infants who are breastfed, and young children. Fish provides health benefits for the general public. Many people do not currently eat the recommended amount of fish.


Note

*This advice refers to fish and shellfish collectively as “fish.”




Questions & Answers
1. Why we are issuing this advice now?
We (the Food and Drug Administration and the Environmental Protection Agency) are issuing this advice to encourage women to eat recommended amounts and types of fish. Recent reports show many pregnant women in the United States are not consuming fish in amounts recommended by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010. This advice is being issued now to encourage women who are pregnant (or may become pregnant) or breastfeeding and young children to eat more fish and to eat a variety of fish from choices that are lower in mercury. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010, the federal government’s evidence-based nutritional guidance to promote healthy eating, now recommends that “women who are pregnant or breastfeeding consume at least 8 and up to 12 ounces of a variety of seafood per week, from choices lower in methyl mercury.”  
There is longstanding evidence of the nutritional value of fish in the diet. Fish contain high quality protein, many vitamins and minerals, omega-3 fatty acids, are mostly low in saturated fat, and some fish even contain vitamin D. The nutritional value of fish is especially important during growth and development before birth, in early infancy for breastfed infants, and in childhood.
2. Can you provide me with a list of different types of fish and how much mercury and omega-3 fatty acids they contain?The following table provides a list of common fish that can be bought in stores and restaurants.
Common Varieties
Milligrams of Omega-3 Fatty Acids (Eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic (DHA) Per 4 Ounces of Cooked Fish
Micrograms of Mercury Per 4 Ounces of Cooked Fish

Salmon: Atlantic, Chinook, Coho
1,200 – 2,400
2

Anchovies, Herring, and Shad
2,300 – 2,400
5 - 10

Mackerel: Atlantic & Pacific (not King)
1,350 – 2,100
8 - 13

Tuna: Bluefin & Albacore
1,700
54-58

Sardines: Atlantic & Pacific
1,100 – 1,600
2

Oysters: Pacific
1,550
2

Trout: Freshwater
1,000 – 1,100
11

Tuna: White (Albacore) canned
1,000
40

Mussels: Blue
900
NA*

Salmon: Pink & Sockeye
700 – 900
2

Squid
750
11

Pollock: Atlantic & Walleye
600
6

Marlin
250 – 1030**
69

Crab: Blue, King, Snow, Queen, & Dungeness
200 – 550
9

Tuna: Skipjack & Yellowfin
150 – 350
31 – 49

Flounder, Plaice, & Sole (Flatfish)
350
7

Clams
200 – 300
<1***

Tuna: Light canned
150 – 300
13

Catfish
100 – 250
7

Cod: Atlantic & Pacific
200
14

Scallops: Bay & Sea
200
8

Haddock & Hake
200
2 – 5

Lobster: American
200
47

Crayfish
200
5

Tilapia
150
2

Shrimp
100
<1***

Orange Roughy
42
80

Varieties That Should Not be Consumed by Women Who Are Pregnant or Breastfeeding or by Young Children
Shark
1,250
151

Tilefish: Gulf of Mexico
1,000
219

Swordfish
1,000
147

Mackerel: King
450
110
*Not available. It is likely to be comparable to the levels in oysters and clams.
**250 is the value for blue marlin and 1030 is the value for striped marlin.
***Less than one.
This table can be found in Appendix 11 in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010. We have modified it to change “zero” to “less than one” for clams and shrimp since they do contain very small amounts of mercury. We have also added orange roughy and marlin to the table because we are seeking public comment on whether to recommend that pregnant and breastfeeding women and young children avoid these fish.  

3. What are mercury and methylmercury?
Mercury occurs naturally in the environment and can also be released to the environment through many types of human activity. Mercury can collect in streams, lakes, and oceans and is turned into methylmercury in the water. It is this type of mercury that is present in fish. Methylmercury is a neurotoxin that can be harmful to the brain and nervous system if a person is exposed to too much of it.
4. Is there methylmercury in all fish?
Nearly all fish contain at least traces of methylmercury. As they feed, fish absorb methylmercury. Methylmercury tends to build up more in some types of fish than others, especially in larger fish with longer life spans.
5. What fish should I avoid?
You should avoid these four types of fish that are highest in mercury*
  • Tilefish from the Gulf of Mexico
  • Shark
  • Swordfish
  • King mackerel
As you can see from the above table, those fish are notably higher in mercury on average than the other listed fish.
*Mercury concentration data come from the FDA database located athttp://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodborneIllnessContaminants/metals/ucm115644.htm.
6. How many servings of fish should I eat every week in order to eat 8-12 ounces?
If you eat 2-3 servings per week it is likely that you will eat 8-12 ounces. That would be 4-6 ounces per serving.
7. Is it true that pregnant women and young children should avoid raw fish?
Yes.  The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 and FDA recommend that pregnant women and young children should only eat foods with fish, meat, poultry, or eggs that have been cooked to safe temperatures to protect against microbes that might be in those foods.  Pregnant women and young children often lack strong immune systems and are more at risk for foodborne illnesses.
8. How should I eat 8-12 ounces of fish every week within my calorie needs?
If you have to eat more fish than you usually do in order to eat 8-12 ounces per week, you should be mindful not to exceed what would be a good number of calories for you. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend increasing the amount and variety of fish you eat by choosing fish in place of other protein sources. This may mean eating less of other things in order to stay within your calorie needs. It may also mean paying attention to how the fish are prepared. Broiled fish, for example, typically contain fewer calories than fried fish and can be healthier in other ways as well. If you are uncertain about what the right number of calories is for you, useful information is available at www.choosemyplate.gov(specific information available at http://www.choosemyplate.gov/weight-management-calories/weight-management/better-choices/amount-calories.html). If you wish further information, we recommend that you consult a nutritionist or your physician.
9. It is hard to imagine a young child eating 8-12 ounces of fish every week. Would it be OK to serve less?
Yes. We recommend serving fish to young children 2-3 times per week but the portion sizes should be smaller than adult portions and right for your child’s age and appetite. The USDA Food Patterns, which provide examples of the types and amounts of foods to consume for health, suggest that children ages 2-8 years eat about 3-6 ounces of fish per week, depending on calorie needs. For children under the age of six, the USDA Food Patterns suggest an amount of 3-5 ounces per week. For children ages 6-8, the total for the week should be about 4-6 ounces.  Appropriate amounts of fish for older children would increase up to the adult recommendation of at least 8 ounces per week as their calorie needs increase. As an additional matter, parents should feed fish to young children only after 6 months of age. Because fish, and particularly shellfish, are regarded as major allergens, parents feeding fish to their children for the first time should monitor for signs of an allergic reaction before feeding a second time.
The recommendation to limit consumption of albacore tuna to 6 ounces per week should similarly be adjusted for age and portion size.  And, of course, the recommendation to avoid the fish highest in mercury (tilefish from the Gulf of Mexico, king mackerel, shark, and swordfish) applies to young children as well as to pregnant women and breastfeeding mothers. The recommendation for fish that you or others catch in rivers, streams, and lakes and for which no advice is available is that children under the age of six should limit their consumption of these fish to 1 – 2 ounces per week and children ages 6 – 12 should limit their consumption to 2 – 3 ounces per week. In neither case should children eat other fish that week.
10. Should I be concerned if I eat one serving of the four fish you recommend against eating?
While it is unlikely that a single serving could have any health impact, these fish should not be part of your regular diet. We recommend that you avoid these fish while pregnant, if you plan to get pregnant, or while breastfeeding, and that you avoid serving these fish to young children.
11. I eat a lot of tuna, especially canned light tuna because it is particularly affordable. Is it alright to eat mostly canned light tuna?
Canned light tuna is fine to eat because it is not high in methylmercury, but we recommend that you eat a variety of fish, including at least some fish that are even lower in mercury. You may wish to try other affordable fish lower in mercury such as other types of canned fish, frozen fish, or fresh fish that are on sale.
12. I eat a lot of tuna, but prefer to eat albacore tuna. Should I continue to eat mostly albacore tuna?
White tuna (albacore) contains much less mercury on average than the fish we recommend avoiding, but it does typically contain three times as much methylmercury on average as canned light tuna. As recommended in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010, you should limit white tuna (albacore) to six ounces per week. When serving albacore to children, we suggest reducing by roughly one-half the amounts recommended by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010described above in the answer to Question 9 (e.g., 1-4 ounces).
13. What happens if I eat less than eight or more than 12 ounces of fish (including shellfish) in a week?
Our advice is provided as a general guideline for how much fish to eat weekly. If you eat more or less than the recommended amount one week, simply try to eat the recommended amount in the following weeks.
14. Why should I follow the recommendations for eating fish?
Fish are a good source of many nutrients, including protein and minerals such as iron, and most of them are low in saturated fats. Fish also contain varying amounts of omega-3 fatty acids and some fish contain vitamin D. Fish consumption, as part of a healthy eating pattern and when consumed within caloric needs, is associated with overall health. The nutritional value of fish lower in mercury is especially important during growth and development before birth, in early infancy (for breastfed infants), and in childhood.
15. Should I avoid all fish during pregnancy in order to avoid mercury?
You do not need to avoid fish during pregnancy. In fact, primary research studies with pregnant women have consistently found that the nutritional value of fish is important during growth and development before birth, even though nearly all fish contain at least traces of mercury. This has been especially the case when the fish has been lower in mercury. TheDietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 include fish as a food to increase, both generally and during pregnancy, because most people eat below the recommended amounts. Avoiding fish during pregnancy in favor of omega-3 supplements means that you would be missing out on many other important nutrients contained in fish that are required for overall health.
16. Why does this advice include a recommendation for recreationally caught fish from local waters?
There are local waters where there may have been little or no monitoring and, therefore, the extent of potential methylmercury contamination is unknown. Local fresh water fish may also differ in their nutritional composition. That’s why it is important for those who fish to pay attention to local advisories.  If there is no local fish advisory, you should eat no more than 6 ounces per week and do not eat any other fish that week.  Children under the age of six should limit their consumption of these fish to 1 – 2 ounces per week and children ages 6 – 12 should limit their consumption to 2 – 3 ounces per week. In neither case should children eat other fish that week.
17. Where do I get information about the safety of fish caught by family or friends?
Check the applicable fishing regulations booklet or website for information about recreationally caught fish. Local health departments also have information about advisories in their jurisdiction.
18. Can I clean or prepare (e.g., cook) my fish to reduce the amount of methylmercury that might be present?
Methylmercury is found throughout the tissue in fish, so cleaning or cooking will not reduce the amount of methylmercury in a fish meal.  However, it’s always a good idea to remove skin, belly fat, and internal organs (where other harmful pollutants may accumulate) before you cook fish. This is particularly true for locally caught fish
References
Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010, Chapter 4: Foods and Nutrients to Increase, Chapter 5: Building Healthy Eating Patterns, Appendix 6, Appendix 7, and Appendix 11, available at http://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2010.asp.
Report of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010 to the Secretary of Agriculture and the Secretary of Health and Human Services, pages 239-241, available athttp://www.cnpp.usda.gov/DGAs2010-DGACReport.htm.  
How to Comment
Interested persons may submit either electronic comments regarding this document to http://www.regulations.gov or written comments regarding this document to the Division of Dockets Management (HFA-305), Food and Drug Administration, 5630 Fishers Lane, rm. 1061, Rockville, MD 20852. It is only necessary to send one set of comments. All comments on this document should be identified with the docket number listed in the Federal Register notice announcing the availability of this document.
The comment period opens June 11, 2014.



[发帖际遇]: 一个袋子砸在了 谷雨 头上,谷雨 赚了 1 金币 ,真开心。 幸运榜 / 衰神榜
回复

使用道具 举报

 楼主| 发表于 2014-11-8 09:52:42 | 显示全部楼层
上面的术语较多,不是很容易看懂,翻译起来也很麻烦,找了个中文版的,大家看这个吧:

  原来吸收超量的汞对婴幼儿、及腹中的胎儿的脑神经影响最大。会影响他们的认知、注意力、记忆力、语言、行动力及视觉。

(source:http://www.epa.gov/mercury/effects.htm)


  以下是“美国自然资源保护协会”(NRDC)公布的海产品汞含量清单。我看后,觉得很多鱼都不太熟悉;于是,又在香港的食品安全中心官网上找到了香港市场常见鱼类的汞含量高低。我把这两个清单都贴在自家冰箱门上提醒自己。在这里也特地翻译过来和各位爸爸、妈妈们分享,供大家参考。


  美国自然资源保护协会的清单:

  

  

  

  

  *濒临灭绝的海产

  **养殖的三文鱼

  以下是香港食品中心公布的信息,我还附上了图,方便大家辨认。

  汞含量较高鱼类的例子:

  大西洋胸棘鲷

  

  箭鱼

  

  金目鲷

  

  方头鱼

  

  蓝鳍吞拿鱼

  

  大眼吞拿鱼

  

  鲨鱼

  

  旗鱼

  

  汞含量较低鱼类的例子:

  三文鱼

  

  乌头

  

  桂花鱼

  

  鲮鱼

  

  黄花鱼

  

  沙丁鱼

  

  大眼鸡

  

  鲳鱼

  

  汞是什么?鱼类为何含有汞?

  汞(俗称水银)是广泛存在于环境中的一种金属。这种金属亦可在大自然中与其他物质结合为无机盐,又或与有机物质结合为甲基汞。


  地壳内的汞通过火山爆发和采矿活动进入环境、河流和海洋中。工业废物进一步增加汞排放。水中的微生物把无机汞转化为甲基汞,鱼类吃下这些微生物会在体内积聚甲基汞,而大鱼吃小鱼后则会令甲基汞含量沿食物链不断增加。


  甲基汞的特性如下:

  含量在体型较大的捕猎鱼类中会较高;

  对胎儿发育中的脑部损害尤大;

  含量不能透过烹煮减少。

  安全的摄入量

  联合国粮食及农业组织/世界卫生组织联合食品添加剂专家委员会(专家委员会)已订定甲基汞的安全摄入量,即暂定每周可容忍摄入量为每公斤体重 1.6 微克。孕妇和正值生育年龄妇女的甲基汞摄入量不应超出暂定每周可容忍摄入量。



[发帖际遇]: 谷雨 找回了丢失的钱包,得到了 3 金币,感谢好心人。 幸运榜 / 衰神榜
回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

您需要登录后才可以回帖 登录 | 注册

本版积分规则

986|

小黑屋|手机版|儿童教育网  |赞助儿教-获取元宝-快速升级|广告自助中心  

GMT+8, 2019-8-22 06:25 , Processed in 0.233764 second(s), 38 queries .

Powered by etjy.com! X3.2

© 2001-2013 Comsenz Inc.

快速回复 返回顶部 返回列表